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{"activity_order":null,"activity_type":["Technique","Science"],"assignment_recipes":null,"author_notes":null,"cooked_this":0,"created_at":"2013-03-19T01:56:00Z","creator":null,"currently_editing_user":null,"description":"Pressure infusion is a simple technique for preparing flavorful infusions. The technique was <a href=\"http://www.cookingissues.com/2010/08/11/infusion-profusion-game-changing-fast-%E2%80%98n-cheap-technique/\" target=blank>first popularized</a> by Dave Arnold of Cooking Issues fame, and the idea spread quickly from there. And why not? It\u2019s simple to do and it makes it possible to create a flavorful infusion in seconds or minutes that would otherwise take hours or days.\r\n\r\nBut how does it work? The technique of pressure infusion relies on the phenomenon of cavitation to open the microstructure of solid ingredients and extract flavorful molecules into the surrounding liquid. We\u2019ve seen cavitation at work before, recall that it\u2019s <a href=\"http://www.chefsteps.com/activities/the-physics-of-blending-cavitation\" target=blank>secretly assisting the blades of a blender</a> each time you prepare a smooth puree. \r\n\r\nLooking at the process a bit closer, here is what happens: when a liquid and aromatic solids, like the charred oak chips shown here, are sealed inside a whipping siphon, which is then pressurized with nitrous oxide, some of the gas will dissolve into the liquid and then diffuse into the solids. When the gas is suddenly released from the siphon, the sudden pressure drop causes gas to come out of solution in the liquid and solids as bubbles. As these bubbles rapidly swell in size they rupture the microstructure of the solid ingredients, releasing aromatic molecules into the surrounding liquid. The result is a remarkably flavorful infusion in mere minutes. ","difficulty":"easy","featured_image_id":"{\"url\":\"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/4iH34dUbRHeCGoidsQMl\",\"filename\":\"3.jpg\",\"mimetype\":\"image/jpeg\",\"size\":204730,\"key\":\"ZQVLDmRXRcwxLcOXE0nw_3.jpg\",\"isWriteable\":true}","forks":[],"id":232,"image_id":"","include_in_gallery":true,"last_edited_by_id":null,"likes_count":12,"published":true,"published_at":"2013-03-19T01:56:00Z","show_only_in_course":false,"slug":"pressure-infusion-with-charred-oak","source_activity_id":null,"source_type":0,"summary_tweet":null,"timing":"","title":"Pressure Infusion with Charred Oak","transcript":"","updated_at":"2013-06-07T11:02:30Z","upload_count":0,"used_in":[],"yield":"500 g of infused liquid","youtube_id":"StSSS2S2zBA","tags":[{"id":124,"name":"cavitation"},{"id":141,"name":"modernist"},{"id":147,"name":"infusion"},{"id":153,"name":"pressure infusion"},{"id":154,"name":"extraction"},{"id":155,"name":"oak chips"}],"equipment":[{"optional":false,"equipment":{"id":80,"product_url":"http://www.amazon.com/lm/R6FTIQG6R78J8/ref=cm_lm_pthnk_view?ie=UTF8&lm_bb=&tag=delvkitc-20","title":"Whipping siphon"}},{"optional":false,"equipment":{"id":81,"product_url":"http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00007JXR4/ref=as_li_qf_sp_asin_il_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=B00007JXR4&linkCode=as2&tag=delvkitc-20","title":"N2O cartridges"}}],"ingredients":[{"display_quantity":"25","note":"","quantity":"25.0","unit":"g","ingredient":{"for_sale":false,"id":620,"product_url":null,"slug":"flavorful-solids","sub_activity_id":null,"title":"Flavorful solids"}},{"display_quantity":"500","note":"","quantity":"500.0","unit":"g","ingredient":{"for_sale":false,"id":621,"product_url":null,"slug":"liquid","sub_activity_id":null,"title":"Liquid"}}],"steps":[{"activity_id":232,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-19T01:56:00Z","directions":"* Combine a liquid you want to infuse with a flavorful aromatic solid. Here we're using charred oak chips, but the same technique can be applied to spices and herbs for example. \r\n\r\n* It's somewhat counterintuitive, but unlike other approaches to preparing infusions in the kitchen, cool liquids work better. The reason is that gas is more soluble in a colder liquid than a warmer liquid, and the dissolved gas is essential to the technique. Dave Arnold's <a href=\"http://www.cookingissues.com/2010/08/11/infusion-profusion-game-changing-fast-%E2%80%98n-cheap-technique/\">experiments showed</a> that cool to room temperature liquids yielded the results he preferred. Finally, nitrous oxide is more soluble in ethanol and oils than water, and so are many of the flavorful molecules that are extracted, which is why these liquids will usually yield a more potent infusion.","extra":null,"hide_number":null,"id":865,"image_description":"Grant Crilly of ChefSteps blowtorches oak chips for use in a pressure infused cocktail.","image_id":"","is_aside":null,"presentation_hints":{},"step_order":8388604,"subrecipe_title":"","title":"Fill a Whipping Siphon","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-04-09T04:18:25Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":232,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-19T01:56:01Z","directions":"* Pressurize the whipping siphon with one or two N<sub>2</sub>O charges. A single whipping charge contains 8 g of nitrous oxide in a cartridge with a volume of 0.01 liters. The pressure inside these cartridges is nearly 450 times normal atmospheric pressure (450\u00a0bar / 6527\u00a0psi). If you fill an empty one liter whipping siphon with one charge, the pressure inside the siphon will rise to around 5.5\u00a0bar / 80\u00a0psi depending on the temperature of the liquid and gas. \r\n","extra":null,"hide_number":null,"id":866,"image_description":"Pressure infused, charred oak vodka using a whipping siphon.","image_id":"","is_aside":null,"presentation_hints":{},"step_order":8388605,"subrecipe_title":"","title":"Pressurize","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-04-09T04:18:25Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":232,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-04-07T03:18:50Z","directions":"* Cavitate by releasing the gas pressure as rapidly as possible. The faster the pressure falls, the greater the cavitation effect. Do this by holding the siphon upright so that the gas can escape without releasing liquid.\r\n\r\n* You can do this immediately after pressurizing, or wait a while to allow more gas to dissolve into the liquid and diffuse into the solid ingredients, which will facilitate greater extraction. Often, however, there is no need to wait.","extra":null,"hide_number":null,"id":926,"image_description":"","image_id":"","is_aside":null,"presentation_hints":{},"step_order":8388606,"subrecipe_title":"","title":"Cavitate","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-04-09T04:18:25Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":232,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-04-07T03:18:50Z","directions":"* Strain the spent solids from the infused liquid.","extra":null,"hide_number":null,"id":927,"image_description":"","image_id":"","is_aside":null,"presentation_hints":{},"step_order":8388607,"subrecipe_title":"","title":"Decant","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-04-09T04:18:25Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]}]}