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{"activity_order":null,"activity_type":["Science"],"assignment_recipes":null,"author_notes":null,"cooked_this":0,"created_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","creator":null,"currently_editing_user":null,"description":"A combination of compressive shearing forces and cavitation are the unnoticed and unseen forces that a blender uses to rip or implode pieces of food into bits so small that the end result is a smooth puree or a rich emulsion.","difficulty":"","featured_image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/eecgmU9gSHmRGVdgiwQO\", \"size\": 345358, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"1Nqahz3QlC2glIX7GCig_Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_1.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_1.jpg\"}","forks":[],"id":214,"image_id":"","include_in_gallery":true,"last_edited_by_id":null,"layout_name":null,"likes_count":2,"published":true,"published_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","show_only_in_course":false,"slug":"the-physics-of-blending-cavitation","source_activity_id":null,"source_type":0,"summary_tweet":null,"timing":"","title":"The Physics of Blending \u2014 Cavitation","transcript":"As the blades of our Waring blender spin through liquified food, forces other than cutting are responsible for most of the work of blending. A powerful shearing force drives circulation by sucking liquid down from the top of the pitcher and then violently flinging it out to the sides. \r\n\r\nHere, as oil tries to slip past the fast moving blades, the turbulence literally rips it into minuscule droplets that are dispersed into the surrounding liquid to create a rich, smooth emulsion. A remarkable amount of engineering effort goes into the design of the blades and pitcher to maximize this force.\r\n\r\nThose of you watching this video closely might notice another oddity: as the blades begin to spin, an uncountable number of bubbles stream from the tips and trailing edges of the blades. This is the tell-tale sign of cavitation. These bubbles are tiny holes ripped into the surrounding fluid. Cavitation might seem benign, but when these bubbles collapse, a powerful shockwave reverberates through the liquid that breaks apart surrounding bits of food.\r\n\r\nIndeed, cavitation is powerful enough to shatter glass. Quickly smacking the top of this glass bottle, for example, creates a brief moment where a few cavitation bubbles appear within the water. When these bubbles pop, the resulting shockwave propagates through the water to the surrounding glass bottle, shattering it instantly.\r\n\r\nAlthough it\u2019s too fleeting for the eye to see, this same phenomenon is occurring every time you flip the switch on your Waring blender. The impact of these shockwaves is immense and breaks surrounding particles of food into incredibly small pieces. This is the unseen force that a blender uses to cut food down to size.","updated_at":"2013-06-07T11:02:30Z","used_in":[],"yield":"","youtube_id":"iCmjZboscPM","tags":[{"id":2,"name":"science"},{"id":5,"name":"physics"},{"id":122,"name":"Blending"},{"id":124,"name":"cavitation"}],"equipment":[],"ingredients":[],"steps":[{"activity_id":214,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","directions":"A powerful shearing force drives circulation by sucking liquid down from the top of the pitcher and then violently flinging it out to the sides. \r\n","hide_number":null,"id":759,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/gXy8TLNwQuTGh1arPvwg\", \"size\": 345358, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"rzS8St8RTqCQx7me7HFZ_Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_1.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_1.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":8388604,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Driving circulation","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-03-27T20:03:26Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":214,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","directions":"Here, as oil tries to slip past the fast moving blades, the turbulence literally rips it into minuscule droplets that are dispersed into the surrounding liquid to create a smooth puree or a rich emulsion.","hide_number":null,"id":760,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/OFxhfnzdRfuX0BXPhFW3\", \"size\": 96035, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"xMMhnsiTQa2rkdn7V8JB_Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_2.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_2.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":8388605,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Shearing pieces apart","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-03-27T20:03:28Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":214,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","directions":"The bubbles streaming from the tips and trailing edges of the spinning blades is the tell-tale sign of cavitation. These bubbles are tiny holes ripped into the surrounding fluid that eventually collapse. When they do, a powerful shockwave reverberates through the liquid that breaks apart surrounding bits of food. This is the unseen force that a blender uses to cut food down to size.","hide_number":null,"id":761,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/lG2akiSTWKzmqG6eWCM9\", \"size\": 57575, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"dHmdPNkrSMyoTa0DoTtN_Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_3.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_3.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":8388606,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Cavitation","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-03-27T20:03:29Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":214,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-03-12T02:50:40Z","directions":"Cavitation is surprisingly powerful. Just a few imploding bubbles can cause glass to shatter.\r\n\r\nA popular demonstration of cavitation involves quickly smacking the top of a glass bottle filled with water. The swift blow to the top of the bottle causes the bottle to slide past the water inside it, which creates a brief moment where a few cavitation bubbles appear within the water at the bottom of the bottle. When these bubbles pop, the resulting shockwave propagates through the water to the surrounding glass bottle, shattering it instantly.\r\n\r\n","hide_number":null,"id":762,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/3rklgtL9T2qi9fvkSlFy\", \"size\": 67649, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"DgbEgkfERaO0OZfQ7uRZ_Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_4.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Physics%20of%20Blending_Cavitation_4.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":8388607,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Implosion, not explosion","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-03-27T20:03:30Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]}]}