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{"activity_order":null,"activity_type":["Science"],"assignment_recipes":null,"author_notes":null,"cooked_this":0,"created_at":"2013-02-06T19:07:38Z","creator":null,"currently_editing_user":null,"description":"What happens if we put liquid nitrogen into a vacuum chamber and film it with our high speed camera? The answer is that we can catch a fleeting glimpse of a very exotic material. \r\n\r\n","difficulty":"","featured_image_id":"","forks":[],"id":121,"image_id":"","include_in_gallery":true,"last_edited_by_id":16465,"layout_name":null,"likes_count":5,"published":true,"published_at":"2013-02-06T19:07:38Z","show_only_in_course":false,"slug":"the-physics-of-freezing-liquid-nitrogen-in-a-vacuum","source_activity_id":null,"source_type":0,"summary_tweet":null,"timing":"","title":"The Physics of Freezing Liquid Nitrogen in a Vacuum","transcript":"","updated_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","used_in":[],"yield":"","youtube_id":"c0rK2bLTimQ","tags":[{"id":5,"name":"physics"},{"id":6,"name":"chemistry"},{"id":7,"name":"how"},{"id":12,"name":"LN2"},{"id":13,"name":"physical"}],"equipment":[],"ingredients":[],"steps":[{"activity_id":121,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","directions":"At standard sea level pressure, liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of -321\u00a0\u00b0F / -196\u00a0\u00b0C. That's just 77\u00a0\u00b0C above absolute zero. It's very cold stuff!","hide_number":null,"id":15902,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/I7fLHVFSYKBSyxwwiXj5\", \"size\": 175155, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"yIzDNJEjQijjrA23Tn4g_Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Boiling_1.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Boiling_1.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":0,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Liquid Nitrogen","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":121,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","directions":"When a vacuum chamber lowers pressure, the boiling point of any liquid inside the chamber also falls. That's because the boiling point of any liquid is the temperature at which the pressure of evaporating liquid is equal the ambient pressure. So as the pressure in the chamber falls, the liquid nitrogen boils with greater vigor because it is now warmer than its new boiling point.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n","hide_number":null,"id":15903,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/CQ3uYTyaR2ibppKCr3YF\", \"size\": 474281, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"1JuFZLisR0Z2F3NqSJOq_Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Boiling_2.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Boiling_2.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":4194304,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Boiling Under Vacuum","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":121,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","directions":"Boiling more vigorously speeds evaporation of the nitrogen, which leaves the remaining liquid nitrogen colder for the same reason that evaporating sweat cools a hot body. Eventually, the liquid nitrogen becomes so cold that is vitrifies into a glassy-solid.\r\n\r\n","hide_number":null,"id":15904,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/wCKLDX69TemZxscveUUB\", \"size\": 463538, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"msJPShzqRbmDsvbyqn8s_Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Snow_1.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Snow_1.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":6291456,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Evaporative Cooling","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]},{"activity_id":121,"audio_clip":"","audio_title":"","created_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","directions":"Glasses happen when a liquid is cooled so quickly that the individual atoms do not have time to organize themselves into a well-packed crystalline structure. \r\n\r\nBut in the case of our solid nitrogen, it's a short-lived state of existence. Within a few seconds, a random atom shifts slightly, and a chain-reaction is triggered that causes all of the atoms to move into a tightly packed hexagonal lattice. \r\n\r\nThe solid nitrogen now has the same crystalline structure as a snow flake, but our nitrogen snow is at least -210\u00a0\u00b0C / -346\u00a0\u00b0F below zero!","hide_number":null,"id":15905,"image_description":"","image_id":"{\"url\": \"https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/oSbYI0lTRWS1FtKhDDyi\", \"size\": 473164, \"type\": \"image/jpeg\", \"key\": \"7yAH58r8QUqe0nQjDVFd_Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Snow_2.jpg\", \"filename\": \"Liquid%20Nitrogen_Solid%20Nitrogen_Snow_2.jpg\"}","is_aside":null,"step_order":7340032,"subrecipe_title":null,"title":"Solid Nitrogen","transcript":null,"updated_at":"2013-10-07T22:47:06Z","youtube_id":"","ingredients":[]}]}